Exploring Brucella canis, a Contagious Dog Disease that People Can Get

CNN recently reported on cases of Brucella canis (a bacterial disease) picked up in Marion County, Iowa by the Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship.

While it’s very good to hear news outlets reporting on diseases that affect both our pets and potentially us, a few facts do need to be straightened out.

FACT:

"Brucella canis can be trasmitted from dog to dog and dog to people."

This is very true. The bacteria can be shed in a variety of body fluids, such as feces, urine, saliva, and discharges from the reproductive tract (semen, vagina discharge, afterbirth), and it can also be shed in milk. It is normally transmitted from dog to dog either through breeding or oronasal contact (licking) of one of the body fluids noted.

Once acquired, it can NOT be easily cleared with antibiotics because the bacteria likes to hide inside cells called macrophages, and it will be intermittently present in blood and then chronically and randomly shed from the dog.

The bacteria does not kill its host, and disease is typically limited to infections of reproductive organs, along with occasional infections of the eye or spine.

It does NOT cause a fever and is easily missed without blood testing.

UNTRUTH:

"It can or will ONLY affect breeding dogs and not dogs who have never been bred before or are neutered or spayed dogs."

In fact, although breeding dogs still remain the most likely population to encounter the disease, even spayed or neutered dogs living with or kenneled near infected dogs can pick this bacteria up and shed it because it is transmitted through body fluids.

A dog and her puppy

ALL breeding dogs should be screened for Brucella canis every 6 months whether they are currently breeding or not.

Dogs acquired from rescues and shelters with uncertain reproductive histories should also be screened prior to adoption.

SORT OF TRUE:

"Brucella canis is a significant risk to human health."

Brucella canis has a relatively low risk for potential to spread to healthy humans. Normal hygiene can help. Individuals who are immunocompromised (low immune system), including the very young, elderly, or sick, would be at increased risk. As in dogs, in people it can never be completely cleared with antibiotics.

If you would have more questions about your dog and Brucella canis, our staff would be happy to help you. Please feel free to contact us!

 

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